Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes
(Electric rays) > Torpedinidae
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 31°S, 29°E - 95°E
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf (Ref. 80050), Red Sea eastward to India (Ref. 2712) and southward to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 5578).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2712)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Large ray with a small caudal fin and with papillae around the spiracles (Ref. 5578). Bright color pattern of circles and irregular marks, cream or golden on dark red or brown to blackish background dorsally (Ref. 5578).
Found inshore in sandy bottoms, and well offshore from the surf zone down to 200 m (Ref. 5578). Also on or near coral reefs (Ref. 12951). Common in shallow sandy areas (Ref. 2712). Feeds on bony fishes (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Occurs singly but may form groups during the breeding season (Ref. 12951). Occasionally hooked by anglers, more often seen by divers; can deliver a strong shock (Ref. 2712). Flesh is edible (Ref. 12484). Can survive for hours after being stranded on the beach (Ref. 41394).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). With 9-22 in a litter (Ref. 12951). Form aggregations during the reproductive season (Ref. 41394).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1986. Torpedinidae. p. 112-113. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 2712)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.8 - 28.3, mean 25.5 (based on 370 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01024 - 0.02690), b=2.98 (2.84 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=9-22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .