Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate)
(Eels and morays) > Muraenidae
(Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 50 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 30°N - 25°S
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 33390) to the Marquesas and Oeno Atoll (Pitcairn Group), north to the Ryukyu and Hawaiian islands, south to New Caledonia and the Austral Islands.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 300 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 9710); Peso massimo pubblicato: 30.0 kg (Ref. 30404)
Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Spine anali 0; Vertebre: 137 - 143. Juveniles are tan with numerous large black spots. Adults have black specks that grade into leopard-like spots behind the head and a black area surrounding the gill opening.
Found in lagoon and seaward reefs. Commonly seen species along deep drop-offs and slopes in Indonesian waters (Ref. 48635). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Juveniles more secretive and occur on intertidal reef flats (Ref. 37816). It feeds primarily on fishes and occasionally on crustaceans. This is the largest Indo-Pacific moray eel (Ref. 30404), perhaps reaching 3 m in length. Because of its position at the top of the reef's food chain it is often ciguatoxic. Attacks humans when provoked (Ref. 3132). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 10713. Solitary in reef holes (Ref 90102).
Observations on prespawning behavior include a pair entwined around one another lying on the bottom of the reef area (Ref. 93344).
Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen, 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Pesca: pesca di sussistenza; Acquario: Acquari pubblici
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 29, mean 28.1 (based on 902 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 69278
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (Fec = 200,000-300,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .