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Encrasicholina punctifer  Fowler, 1938

Buccaneer anchovy
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Native range
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Encrasicholina punctifer   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Encrasicholina punctifer (Buccaneer anchovy)
Encrasicholina punctifer
Picture by Hermosa, Jr., G.V.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Encrasicholina: Greek, egkrasicholos, -os, -on = mixed with spleen.   More on author: Fowler.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 5 - 35 m (Ref. 86942).   Tropical; 42°N - 35°S, 30°E - 140°E (Ref. 189)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Persian Gulf south to perhaps Durban in South Africa, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, and probably Burma. Also from southern Japan to China, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia south to Brisbane, Australia, Japan eastward to Hawaii, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Samoa and Tahiti.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 7 - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-15; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 14 - 17. Belly rounded with 3 to 6 sharp needle-like pre-pelvic scutes. Maxilla tip blunt, scarcely projecting beyond second supra-maxilla, not reaching to front border of pre-operculum. Isthmus short, preceded by small fleshy plate on urohyal between branchial membranes. Anal fin short, its origin behind base of last dorsal fin ray.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Epipelagic (Ref. 58302). A schooling species found inshore and in oceanic waters, hundreds of miles from land. Sometimes entering large atoll lagoons or deep, clear bays. Ranks among the most important food (bait) for tuna and other large pelagic fishes (Ref. 1602). Processed into nuoc-mam, a kind of fish pickle, in Indo-China (Ref. 4929).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawn in school (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.2, mean 28.3 (based on 928 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00306 - 0.00749), b=3.26 (3.13 - 3.39), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.1 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.1-2.0).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.