Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes
(Characins) > Characidae
(Characins) > Incertae sedis
Etymology: Hemigrammus: Greek, hemi = half + Greek, gramma = letter, signal (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical
South America: Amazon, Paraguay, Corantijn and Orinoco River basins.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 38376)
soft rays: 26 - 30;
Vertebrae: 32 - 33. Hemigrammus lunatus is distinguished from most congeners, except from H. barrigonae, H. machadoi and H. ulreyi, by having wide dark horizontal stripe across the eye (vs. eye stripes absent or, when present, vertical in the remaining congeners). It differs also from most congeners, with the exception of H. barrigonae, H. boesemani H. geisleri, H. machadoi, H. mimus, and H. ulreyi, by having well defined narrow dark stripe at the basis of the anal fin (vs. dark stripe at the basis of anal fin absent). It can be readily diagnosed from H. boesemani, H. geisleri, and H. mimus, by having a distinct roundish dark humeral blotch (vs. humeral blotch absent) and by lacking a blotch on caudal peduncle or any distinct patch of pigmentation on caudal fin (vs. blotch on caudal peduncle present in H. boesemaniand H. geisleri, a dark marking present at the basis of each caudal-fin lobe basis in H. mimus). It differs from H. barrigonae and H. ulreyi by lacking a narrow, well-defined longitudinal dark stripe (vs. present), and by lacking a discrete blotch on caudal peduncle (vs. present in H. barrigonae) or a dark pigmentation patch on the basis of anteriormost dorsal-fin rays (vs. present in H. ulreyi). It differs from H. machadoi by having the following characters: a small roundish dark humeral blotch, extending horizontally from fourth through sixth lateral-line scales, and vertically from fourth through fifth scale rows above lateral line (vs. conspicuous, vertically elongated humeral blotch, extending horizontally from second through sixth lateral-line scales, and vertically from third row above lateral line to first row below it); 6-7 gill-rakers on upper branch and 11-12 on lower (vs. 4-5, and 9-10, respectively); the lower number of cusps of inner premaxillary, dentary, and maxillary largest tooth (5 vs. 5-7 cusps, mode 7, in premaxillary and dentary; 1-3 vs. 3-5, mode 5, in maxillary); and 32-33 total vertebrae (vs. 34-35) (Ref. 96864).
Usually inhabits slow flowing, low-gradient streams and small rivers. Also found in floodplain lakes associated with white-water rivers in central Amazon. An ubiquitous and abundant species in lagoons and riverine habitats across a piedmont/lowland river stretch in río Napo basin in Amazonian Ecuador (Ref. 96864). Maximum length questionable (Ref. 38376).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ota, R.P., F.C.T. Lima and C.S. Pavanelli, 2014. A new species of Hemigrammus Gill, 1858 (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Madeira and rio Paraguai basins, with a redescription of H. lunatus. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 12(2):265-279. (Ref. 96864)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00609 - 0.02725), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .