分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚)
(Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps)
(Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps)
Etymology: Chondrostoma: Greek, chondros = cartilage + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). Name referring to the characteristic horny layer on the lower lip (Ref. 57917). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水 底中水層性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243). 溫帶; 56°N - 37°N, 0°E - 35°E
Europe: Basins of Black (Danube, Dniestr, South Bug and Dniepr drainages), southern Baltic (Nieman, Odra, Vistula) and southern North Seas (westward to Meuse). Invasive or introduced in Rhône, Loire, Hérault, Seine (France) and Soca (Italy, Slovenia) drainages. Reports from the Drin drainage including Lakes Ohrid and Skadar represent a distinct species. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). Asia: Turkey.
歐洲: 萊茵河與多瑙河流域。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).
大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 25.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 1.5 kg (Ref. 556); 最大年齡: 15 年 (Ref. 30578)
背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 8-10; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 9 - 11; 脊椎骨: 47 - 48. Diagnosed from congeners in Black and Caspian Sea basins by the following characters: straight mouth in individuals larger than 20 cm SL, lower lip with thick cornified sheath; dorsal fin with 9½ branched rays; anal fin with 10-11½ branched rays; scales on lateral line 52-66 (usually 60-63); eye large, diameter 50-65% of interorbital distance; and side lacking broad dark midlateral stripe. Differs from species of Chondrostoma, Protochondrostoma and Parachondrostoma in Atlantic, Adriatic and Mediterranean basins of France, Italy and Slovenia by having the following features: mouth straight, lower lip with thick cornified sheath; 27-36 gill rakers; anal fin with 10-11½ branched rays; and pectoral, pelvic, anal and caudal fins red (Ref. 59043).
(Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 to 21 rays (Ref. 40476).
尾鰭有 19 到 21個鰭條。 (參考文獻 40476)
Gregarious. Adults occur in fairly shallow water with fast current, often beside the swirls created by piles of bridges or rocks (Ref. 30578). They inhabit moderate to fast-flowing large to medium sized rivers with rock or gravel bottom. Larvae occur below surface and feeding larvae inhabit along shores. Early juveniles live on the bottom in very shallow shoreline habitats. When growing, they move from the shore for faster-flowing waters. Juveniles overwinter in backwaters or in cavities along shores. During winter, adults form dense swarms in lower parts of rivers. Larvae and early juveniles prey on small invertebrates while larger juveniles and adults feed on benthic diatoms and detritus. Adults migrate upstream some tens of km to spawning sites which are often located in tributaries. Spawning occurs in fast flowing water on shallow gravel beds (Ref. 556, 59043). Its flesh is good but bony (Ref. 30578). Locally threatened by damming, destruction of spawning sites and pollution. In drainages where they are introduced, they outcompete and eliminate Parachondrostoma toxostoma in Rhône and Protochondrostoma genei in Soca (Ref. 59043).
群居的。 出現於非常淺的水且水流快速的地方, 時常在被橋或岩石的堆創造的漩渦旁邊.(參考文獻 30578) 發現於河的上游了。 在石頭上吃海藻的成長, 那是刮掉離開藉著使用它的銳利的﹐低的﹐和裂縫狀嘴.(參考文獻 9696) 在礫石上為產卵在中溯河迴游而且進入小的支流淺水區。 (參考文獻 556) 它的肉是好的但是多骨的.(參考文獻 30578)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Migrates some tens of km to spawning sites, which are often located in tribbutaries. Males form large aggregations, each male defending a small territory. Females spawn only once a year and in some populations, during a very short period of 3-5 days. Females lay sticky eggs into excavations made in gravel (Ref. 59043).歐洲: 萊茵河與多瑙河流域。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
漁業: 低經濟; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00456 - 0.01322), b=3.11 (2.97 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=3-4; tmax=15; Fec=10,000-40,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .