Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 5 - 100 m (Ref. 106604). Tropical; 34°N - 10°S, 60°E - 150°E
Indo-West Pacific: Arabian Sea to Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, China, Japan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea northward to Japan. Probably occurring in Sri Lanka (Ref. 13575). However, many country records need confirmation (Ref. 13575).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 45 - ? cm
Max length : 77.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
soft rays: 0. Genus: Nostrils subterminal on snout; pre-oral snout long, mouth closer to eyes than snout tip; eyes and supraorbital ridges hardly elevated; no black hood on head or large spot or spots on sides of body above pectoral fins (Ref. 43278). Caudal fin with a pronounced subterminal notch but without a ventral lobe (Ref. 13575).
Species: Light brown, yellow-brown or grey-brown above, cream below, with 12-13 prominent saddle marks in young, fading with growth and absent in adults (Ref. 13575). Dark bands in juveniles not outline in black (Ref. 13575). Dorsal fins smaller than pelvic fins, without projecting free rear tips (Ref. 13575). Body without lateral dermal ridge (Ref. 4832,43278, 13575).
A common inshore bottom shark (Ref. 247). Often found in estuaries (Ref. 4832). Probably feeds mainly on invertebrates (Ref. 247, 43278). Oviparous (Ref. 43278, 50449). Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 171).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, deposits eggs in small, oval eggs cases on the bottom (Ref. 247). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). During copulation observed in captivity, the male bites the female's pectoral fin in a side-to-side position (Ref. 49562, 51121).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 29.1, mean 28.3 (based on 1090 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00154 - 0.00746), b=3.12 (2.92 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .