Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Ginsburg.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 24 - 133 m (Ref. 26268), usually 31 - 70 m (Ref. 26268). Tropical; 35°N - 5°N, 100°W - 55°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: Straits of Florida in the eastern Gulf of Mexico but most common west and south of Mississippi Delta on the inner continental shelf to Guyana.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Inhabits bays and shallow coastal waters (Ref. 7251); mainly on silt and soft mud substrates (Ref. 26268). Little is known of its ecology (Ref. 26268).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182. (Ref. 26268)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .