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Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw, 1804)

Fourfinger threadfin
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Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Eleutheronema tetradactylum   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Eleutheronema tetradactylum
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Polynemidae (Threadfins) 馬鮁科 (Threadfins)
Etymology: Eleutheronema: Greek, eleutheros = free + Greek, nema = filament (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Shaw.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 非產卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 23 m (Ref. 6390).   熱帶; 32°N - 26°S, 47°E - 154°E (Ref. 57343)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Papua New Guinea and northern Australia. Replaced by Eleutheronema rhadinum (Jordan & Evermann, 1902), in East Asia (Japan, China, Viet Nam).
印度-西太平洋: 波斯灣到巴布亞新幾內亞與澳洲北部。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 29 - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3479); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3479); 最大體重: 145.0 kg (Ref. 4965)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 9; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-15; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 14 - 16; 脊椎骨: 25. This species is distinguished with the following characters: second dorsal fin soft rays 14 (rarely 13 or 15) pectoral fin rays 16-18 (mode 17, rarely 15 or 19), pectoral filaments 4; pored lateral line scales 71-80 (mode 73); scale rows above lateral line 9-12, below 13-15 (14); vomer with deciduous tooth plates on both sides, except in juveniles (< ca. 7.0 cm SL); posterior part of maxilla deep, 3-4% of SL; short tooth plate extension onto lateral surface of lower jaw, 7-9% SL. Colour of upper sides of head and trunk with slight darkish silver tinge, becoming lighter in lower sides; anterior margins of first and second dorsal fins blackish, remaining parts translucent and slightly blackish, respectively; pectoral fin membranes vivid yellow in life, except in large specimens > ca 35 cm SL which is dusky yellow; pectoral filaments white; anterior margin of pelvic fin yellow and other parts white; base of caudal fin yellowish, other parts blackish (Ref. 41639, 57343).
胸的絲狀突起 4; 鰭薄膜生動的黃色活著時, 在大的個體中除,> ca 35 公分 SL。 在兩邊上犛骨有易脫落的齒板, 除了稚魚。 顎骨的較後面的部分深的,3-4% 的 SL。 短齒碟延伸到下頜側面。 7-9% SL.(參考文獻 41639)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur mainly over shallow muddy bottoms in coastal waters. Also enter rivers (Ref. 3479, 6390, 11230). Juveniles found in estuaries. During winter, adults ascend the rivers. They usually form loose schools, although larger fish are more often observed in pairs or singly (Ref. 6390). Feed on prawns and fish (largely members of Mugilidae, Engraulidae, and Sciaenidae) with occasional polychaetes. Frequency of crustaceans to fish in the diet varies seasonally. Larvae (7-30 mm TL) feed mainly on copepods and mysids but also take shrimps and prawn larvae (Ref. 57343). Juveniles (31-60 TL) feed on prawns shrimps and mysids (Ref. 57343). Protandrous hermaphrodites. Marketed fresh, frozen, and dried or salted.

在沿岸水域中主要地遍及泥濘的淺水底部出現。 也進入河。 (參考文獻 3479,11230) 稚魚發現於河口了。 在冬天期間,成魚上溯到河。 他們通常形成鬆散的魚群, 雖然較大的魚更時常被成對或各別地觀察。 (參考文獻 6390) 捕食蝦,而且魚 (主要地鯔科魚類,鯷科與石首魚科的成員) 偶而有多毛類動物。 對在食性中的魚甲殼動物的頻率季節性地改變。 雄性先熟的雌雄同體是。 在市場上銷售生鮮地了, 冷凍, 與乾燥或鹽醃。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

In Australia, fish are males at 24-47 cm FL, hermaphrodites at 25-46 cm FL and females at 28-72 cm FL. On the northeast Queensland coast, most blue threadfin are females by 45-50 cm FL. Hermaphroditic blue threadfin develop fom 1-2-year-old fish, and females first appear as 2-3-year-old individuals (Ref. 28736). Male fish probably commence sex reversal immediately after spawning (ie about April-May) and this condition may persist until after the next spawning period (Ref. 28736). The progression from hermaphrodites to females is complete by the following season. There is little information on the larvae, although nursery areas are known to be lower estuaries, tidal swamps and lagoons, and shallows along the foreshores (Williams 1997).印度-西太平洋: 波斯灣到巴布亞新幾內亞與澳洲北部。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Motomura, H., Y. Iwatsuki, S. Kimura and T. Yoshino, 2002. Revision of the Indo-West Pacific polynemid fish genus Eleutheronema (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyol. Res. 49(1):47-61. (Ref. 41639)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  未評估 

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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生態毒物學
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產卵群集
孕卵數

卵發育
年龄/大小
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長度-重量
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長度-頻率
形態測量圖
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入添量
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參考文獻
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養殖資訊
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網路資源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(基因組, 核甘) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 國家資料庫 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia(, 搜尋) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物學的記錄

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.6 (based on 2815 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00336 - 0.00941), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Fec=680,000; assuming tm>=2).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.84, Based on 2 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   High.