Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Myctophiformes
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophidae
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophinae
Etymology: Symbolophorus: Greek, symbolon, ou = mark, signal + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 850 m (Ref. 4479). Deep-water
Western Atlantic: tropical and subtropical waters, but extensions to 40°N and 28°S in western boundary currents. Eastern Atlantic: between about 28°N to 16°S, but seasonally less abundant in the Mauritanian Upwelling Region. Indian Ocean: in the equatorial region, including Reunion (Ref. 33390). Western Central Pacific: Papua New Guinea (Ref. 6993).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 7 - ? cm
Max length : 9.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479)
High-oceanic species found between 425-850 m during the day and nyctoepipelagic at the surface and down to 125 m (Ref. 4479).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1990. Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .