Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Stellifer: Latin, stella = satr + latin, fero = to carry (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal, usually ? - 25 m (Ref. 9118). Tropical; 14°N -
Eastern Pacific: El Salvador to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9118); common length : 14.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Body moderately elongate and compressed; snout prominent; mouth small and sub-terminal; chin with 4 pores but without barbels; edge of preopercle with 2 strong spines at the angle; lower branch of first gill arch with 18 to 24 gill rakers; second dorsal fin long, with 22 to 26 soft rays; body silvery yellowish without any major distinctive markings; back speckled; fins dark or pale; pelvic fins yellowish; roof of mouth black (Ref. 55763).
Found over muddy and sandy bottoms (Ref. 9118). Feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans, also worms and other benthic invertebrates (Ref. 9118). Common in local markets (Ref. 9118).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and D.R. Robertson, 1994. Fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 332 p. (Ref. 11482)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.32 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .