Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Temperate
Southwest Pacific: occurs only around New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9988); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 9988); max. reported age: 16 years (Ref. 47622)
Inhabits shallow waters, generally at depth of less than 50 m. Juveniles gather in sheltered inshore waters, such as estuarine areas, shallow mudflats and sandflats, where they remain for up to two years (Ref. 9072). Utilized fresh or frozen for broiling, frying and baking (Ref. 9988).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paulin, C., A. Stewart, C. Roberts and P. McMillan, 1989. New Zealand fish: a complete guide. National Museum of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series No. 19. 279 p. (Ref. 5755)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .