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Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål, 1775)

Humpnose big-eye bream
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Monotaxis: Greek, monos = one + Greek, taxis = disposition (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 9710), usually 5 - 30 m (Ref. 9775).   Tropical; 35°N - 30°S, 32°E - 122°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and southeastern Oceania, north to Japan, south to Australia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 27.5, range 18 - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); max. published weight: 5.9 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oblong, greatest body depth of adults about 2.2 in SL; head profile strongly convex in front of eye, the snout sloping steeply; eye large 2.7 (juveniles) to 3.8 (adults) in HL; inner surface of the pectoral fin base is densely scaled; pectoral rays usually 14; caudal fin forked with pointed tips; lateral line scales 44-47; scale rows above lateral line (to base of middle dorsal spines) 5, below (to origin of anal fin) 13.5; side of jaw with row of 5-7 molariform teeth. Color of adult silvery grey with narrow dark scale margins, lips yellowish, a large black blotch covering pectoral fin axil, quick to assume pattern of 4 broad, blackish bars on body, the pale interspaces covering 3-4 scale rows; juveniles with black bar through eye, body with 3 dark brown to blackish bars with the 2 posterior bars extending onto the dorsal fin, and each lobe of caudal fin with an orange band (Ref. 2295, 90102).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in sand and rubble areas near coral reefs. Solitary fish are often encountered, but large adults usually form aggregations of up to about 50 individuals (Ref. 9710). Solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Nocturnal feeders (Ref. 9710). Feed mainly on gastropods, ophiuroids, and echinoids. Pagurids and brachyuran crabs, polychaetes, tunicates, and holothurians are consumed in lesser quantities. Caught mainly with gillnets, traps, spears, and handlines (Ref. 2295). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775). Ciguatoxic in Marshall Is. (Ref. 171).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 March 2015

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.6 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 1440 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02042 (0.01536 - 0.02713), b=2.95 (2.87 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.