Family Paralichthyidae - Large-tooth flounders
  Order
:
Paralichthyidae Paralichthyidae
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 14 | Species : 111 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : Yes | Brackish : Yes | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
upper   Tertiary     Miocene
Ref..   Berg, L.S. 1958
  Remark
:
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; marine, rarely in freshwater. Eyes on the left side. No spines in pectoral and pelvic fins; pelvic fin bases short and nearly symmetrical. Eggs with a single oil globule in the yolk. Placement of Tephrinectes and Thysanopsetta into this family is only provisional.
  Etymology
:
Greek, paralia, -as = seaside, coast + Greek, ichthys = fish ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
nonguarders
  Typical activity level
:
normal
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Acanthopterygii | Percomorphaceae | Carangaria | | | Pleuronectiformes | Pleuronectoidei | | Paralichthyidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Paralichthyidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination
Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus, 1766)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes dentatus Linnaeus, 1766
synonymseniororiginal
Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839)
acceptedseniornew
Platessa orbignyana Valenciennes, 1839
synonymseniororiginal
! Paralichthys orbignyana (Valenciennes, 1839)
synonymseniornew
! Pleuronectes orbignyana (Valenciennes, 1842)
synonymseniornew
Xystreurys ribeiroi Fowler & Bean, 1923
synonymjuniororiginal
Paralichthys simulans Lahille, 1939
synonymjuniororiginal
ambiguousotheroriginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Rhombus aramaca Castelnau, 1855
synonymjuniororiginal
Pseudorhombus vorax Günther, 1862
ambiguousquestionableoriginal
Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)
acceptedseniornew
Hippoglossus olivaceus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867)
acceptedseniornew
Pseudorhombus adspersus Steindachner, 1867
synonymseniororiginal
Hippoglossus kingii Jenyns, 1842
ambiguousquestionableoriginal
Paralichthys microps (Günther, 1881)
acceptedseniornew
Hippoglossina microps Günther, 1881
synonymseniororiginal
Paralichthys albigutta Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal
Paralichthys squamilentus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal
Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan & Gilbert, 1884
acceptedseniororiginal
! Paralichthys letostigma Jordan & Gilbert, 1884
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Paralichthys bicyclophorus Miranda Ribeiro, 1915
synonymjuniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Paralichthys woolmani Jordan & Williams, 1897
acceptedseniororiginal
! Paralichthys woolmanni Jordan & Williams, 1897
synonymseniororiginal
Paralichthys sinaloae Jordan & Abbott, 1898
synonymjuniororiginal
Paralichthys aestuarius Gilbert & Scofield, 1898
acceptedseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner, 1903
acceptedseniororiginal
Paralichthys hilgendorfii Steindachner, 1903
synonymjuniororiginal
! Paralichthys hilgendorfi Steindachner, 1903
synonymjuniororiginal
Paralichthys schmitti Ginsburg, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal
Paralichthys triocellatus Miranda Ribeiro, 1903
acceptedseniororiginal
Paralichthys tropicus Ginsburg, 1933
acceptedseniororiginal
Paralichthys delfini Pequeño & Plaza, 1987
acceptedseniororiginal
Syacium micrurum Ranzani, 1842
acceptedseniororiginal
Hemirhombus micrurus (Ranzani, 1842)
synonymseniornew
! Scyacium micrurum Ranzani, 1842
synonymseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniornew
Hemirhombus aramaca Günther, 1862
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
Hemirhombus aethalion (Jordan, 1886)
synonymjuniornew
Syacium ovale (non Günther, 1864)
misappliedmisappliednew
Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Aramaca papillosa (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Pleuronectes aramaca Walbaum, 1792
synonymjuniororiginal
Citharichthys aramaca (Walbaum, 1792)
synonymjuniornew
Rhombus soleaeformis Agassiz, 1831
synonymjuniororiginal
Aramaca soleaeformis (Agassiz, 1831)
synonymjuniornew
Hemirhombus soleaeformis (Agassiz, 1831)
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniororiginal
Hemirhombus paetulus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
synonymjuniororiginal
Citharichthys paetulus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)
synonymjuniornew
Syacium micrurum (non Ranzani, 1842)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Syacium guineensis (non Bleeker, 1862)
misappliedmisappliednew
Syacium guineensis (Bleeker, 1862)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
! Syacium guineenis (Bleeker, 1862)
synonymseniornew
Scyacium micrurum (non Ranzani, 1842)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Syacium micrurum (non Ranzani, 1842)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Hemirhombus aramaca (non Günther, 1862)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Syacium ovale (non Günther, 1864)
misappliedmisappliednew
Syacium ovale (Günther, 1864)
acceptedseniornew
Hemirhombus ovalis Günther, 1864
synonymseniororiginal
Citharichthys ovalis (Günther, 1864)
synonymseniornew
Syacium latifrons (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)
acceptedseniornew
Citharichthys latifrons Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
synonymseniororiginal
Syacium maculiferum (Garman, 1899)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Cyclopsetta maculifera (Garman, 1899)
synonymseniornew
Syacium gunteri Ginsburg, 1933
acceptedseniororiginal
! Scyacium gunteri Ginsburg, 1933
synonymseniororiginal
Syacium longleyi Norman, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal
! Syacium longreyi Norman, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal
Syacium longidorsale Murakami & Amaoka, 1992
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes surinamensis Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymseniororiginal
Citharichthys sordidus (Girard, 1854)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
! Citarichthys spilopterus Günther, 1862
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys cornutus (Günther, 1880)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Citharichthys stigmaeus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal
! Cithanichthys stigmaeus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys dinoceros Goode & Bean, 1886
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann, 1889
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys stampflii (Steindachner, 1894)
acceptedseniornew
Arnoglossus sp. Not applicable
synonymotherother
Hemirhombus stampflii Steindachner, 1894
synonymseniororiginal
Hemirhombus stampflii (Steindachner, 1894)
synonymseniornew
Syacium stamplii (Steindachner, 1894)
synonymseniornew
! Citarichthys stamfli (Steindachner, 1894)
synonymseniornew
Citharichthys arenaceus Evermann & Marsh, 1900
acceptedseniororiginal
! Citharichtthys arenaceus Evermann & Marsh, 1900
synonymseniororiginal
Citharichthys gordae Beebe & Tee-Van, 1938
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys amblybregmatus Gutherz & Blackman, 1970
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys gymnorhinus Gutherz & Blackman, 1970
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys minutus Cervigón, 1982
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys valdezi Cervigón, 1986
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys mariajorisae van der Heiden & Mussot-Pérez, 1995
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys gnathus Hoshino & Amaoka, 1999
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys darwini Victor & Wellington, 2013
acceptedseniororiginal
Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton, 1822)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes arsius Hamilton, 1822
synonymseniororiginal
! Pseudorhombus arius (Hamilton, 1822)
synonymseniornew
Rhombus lentiginosus Richardson, 1843
synonymjuniororiginal
Rhombus polyspilos Bleeker, 1853
synonymjuniororiginal
Pseudorhombus polyspilos (Bleeker, 1853)
synonymjuniornew
! Pseudorhombus polyspilus (Bleeker, 1853)
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymotheroriginal
! Neorhombus ocellatus De Vis, 1886
synonymotheroriginal
Pseudorhombus andersoni Gilchrist, 1904
synonymjuniororiginal
Pseudorhombus oligodon (non Bleeker, 1854)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus triocellatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes triocellatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
synonymseniornew
! Pseudorhombus russelli (Gray, 1834)
synonymjuniornew
Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)
acceptedseniornew
Rhombus cinnamoneus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
synonymseniororiginal
! Pseudorhombus cinnamomeus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus neglectus (non Bleeker, 1865)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Pseudorhombus levisquamis (non Oshima, 1927)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus javanicus (Bleeker, 1853)
acceptedseniornew
Rhombus javanicus Bleeker, 1853
synonymseniororiginal
Platophrys javanicus (Bleeker, 1853)
synonymseniornew
! Pseudorhambus javanicus (Bleeker, 1853)
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus oligodon (Bleeker, 1854)
acceptedseniornew
Rhombus oligodon Bleeker, 1854
synonymseniororiginal
Pseudorhombus arsius (non Hamilton, 1822)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (non Temminck & Schlegel, 1846)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker, 1855)
acceptedseniornew
Platessa jenynsii Bleeker, 1855
synonymseniororiginal
! Pseudothombus jenynsii (Bleeker, 1855)
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus argus (non Weber, 1913)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
acceptedseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Pseudorhombus oligodon (non Bleeker, 1854)
misappliedmisappliednew
acceptedseniororiginal
Platophrys neglectus (Bleeker, 1865)
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus jenynsii (non Bleeker, 1855)
misappliedmisappliednew
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
synonymseniornew
Pseudorhombus natalensis Gilchrist, 1904
acceptedseniororiginal
Pseudorhombus arsius (non Hamilton, 1822)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus russelli (non Gray, 1834)
misappliedmisappliednew
acceptedseniororiginal
synonymseniororiginal
Platophrys palad Evermann & Seale, 1907
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
! Pseudorhombus elevates Ogilby, 1912
synonymseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
Pseudorhombus arsius (non Hamilton, 1822)
misappliedmisappliednew
acceptedseniororiginal
Pseudorhombus jenynsii (non Bleeker, 1855)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pseudorhombus spinosus McCulloch, 1914
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Pseudorhombus quinquocellatus Weber & de Beaufort, 1929
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Pseudorhombus sp. 1 Not applicable
synonymotherother
Pseudorhombus malayanus (non Bleeker, 1865)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Cephalopsetta ventrocellata (non Dutt & Rao, 1965)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Pseudorhombus binii Tortonese, 1955
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède, 1802)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes sinensis Lacepède, 1802
synonymseniororiginal
Paralichthys sinensis (Lacepède, 1802)
synonymseniornew
Ancylopsetta ommata (Jordan & Gilbert, 1883)
acceptedseniornew
Paralichthys ommatus Jordan & Gilbert, 1883
synonymseniororiginal
ambiguoushomonymoriginal
ambiguoushomonymoriginal
Ancylopsetta dilecta (Goode & Bean, 1883)
acceptedseniornew
Notosema dilecta Goode & Bean, 1883
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Pseudorhombus dendritica (Gilbert, 1890)
synonymseniornew
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Hippoglossina macrops Steindachner, 1876
acceptedseniororiginal
Hippoglossina oblonga (Mitchill, 1815)
acceptedseniornew
Pleuronectes oblongus Mitchill, 1815
synonymseniororiginal
Paralichthys oblongus (Mitchill, 1815)
synonymseniornew
acceptedseniororiginal
! Hippoglossina bollsmani Gilbert, 1890
synonymseniororiginal
Hippoglossina stomata Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1890
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
synonymseniornew
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Thysanopsetta naresi Günther, 1880
acceptedseniororiginal
Xystreurys liolepis Jordan & Gilbert, 1880
acceptedseniororiginal
Xystreurys rasile (Jordan, 1891)
acceptedseniornew
Verecundum rasile Jordan, 1891
synonymseniororiginal
Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal
Citharichthys crossotus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)
synonymseniornew
Citharichthys crossotus crossotus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882)
synonymseniornew
Etropus crossotus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
synonymseniorchange in rank
Etropus intermedius Norman, 1933
synonymjuniororiginal
Etropus microstomus (Gill, 1864)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Etropus rimosus Goode & Bean, 1885
acceptedseniororiginal
Etropus ectenes Jordan, 1889
acceptedseniororiginal
Etropus longimanus Norman, 1933
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniorchange in rank
Etropus delsmani Chabanaud, 1940
acceptedseniororiginal
Etropus peruvianus Hildebrand, 1946
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Etropus cyclosquamus Leslie & Stewart, 1986
acceptedseniororiginal
Etropus ciadi van der Heiden & Plascencia González, 2005
acceptedseniororiginal
Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode & Bean, 1885)
acceptedseniornew
Hemirhombus fimbriatus Goode & Bean, 1885
synonymseniororiginal
! Cyclopseta fimbriata (Goode & Bean, 1885)
synonymseniornew
Cyclopsetta panamensis (Steindachner, 1876)
acceptedseniornew
Citharichthys panamensis Steindachner, 1876
synonymseniororiginal
Azevia panamensis (Steindachner, 1876)
synonymseniornew
Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman, 1890)
acceptedseniornew
Azevia querna Jordan & Bollman, 1890
synonymseniororiginal
Dorsopsetta norma Nielsen, 1963
synonymjuniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Tarphops oligolepis (Bleeker, 1858)
acceptedseniornew
Rhombus oligolepis Bleeker, 1858
synonymseniororiginal
Pseudorhombus oligolepis (Bleeker, 1858)
synonymseniornew
Tarphops elegans Amaoka, 1969
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
! Cephalopsetta ventrocellata Dutt & Rao, 1965
synonymseniororiginal
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