Family Batrachoididae - Toadfishes
  Order
:
Batrachoididae Batrachoididae
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 23 | Species : 83 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : Yes | Brackish : Yes | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
some
  First Fossil Record
:
     
  Remark
:
Toadfishes are known to occur in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Chiefly marine: coastal and benthic; rarely in brackish waters. Few freshwater species. 3 subfamilies: Batrachoidinae with 15 genera and about 43 species distributed off coasts of the Americas, Africa, Europe, southern Aisa, and Australia; Porichthyinae with 2 genera, 15 species and Thalassophryninae with 2 genera, 11 species, distributed in the Eastern Pacific and western Atlantic. Bottom dwellers feeding on invertebrates and fishes. Small to medium-sized fishes (to 57 cm) easily recognized by their characteristic shape. Head broad and flattened, often with barbels and/or fleshy flaps; eyes on top of head, dorsally-directed; mouth wide. Gill openings restricted to sides, just in front of pectoral fin base. Two dorsal fins, the first consisting of 2 or 3 strong, sharp spines; the second consisting of a large number of soft rays; pelvic fins jugular, inserted well in advance of pectoral fins, with 1 spine and 2 or 3 soft rays. One to several lateral lines on head and body. Body naked or covered with small, cycloid scales. Color: mostly drab brown with spots or saddles of black, although at least one coral reef species, Sanopus splendidus, is brightly coloured. One subfamily, the Porichthyinae, is characterized by having photophores (light-emitting organs) in rows along lateral lines on head and body. Toadfishes are bottom-dwellers ranging from shallow inshore areas to deep waters; several species enter rivers, and some migrate regularly between shallow and deep waters. They are rather sluggish in their movements and are ambush predators, feeding mainly on molluscs and crustaceans. They may bite when handled. The subfamily Thalassophryninae, or "venomous toadfishes", includes species with hollow spines in the first dorsal fin and on the opercles; the spines are connected to venom glands that can force a poison into a wound. Although no catch statistics are reported, larger species of toadfishes are commonly found in local markets. Some species are eaten and may fetch fairly high prices in Venezuela and French Guiana. The family is divided into three subfamilies (Collette, 1966): Batrachoidinae (about 18 genera, 47 species), Porichthyinae (2 genera, 15 species), and Thalassophryninae (2 genera, 11 species). The more generalized Batrachoidinae is world wide in distribution and contains a few freshwater species, one in Central America and one in South America. The more specialized midshipmen (Porichthyinae) and venomous toadfishes (Thalassophryninae) are restricted to the New World. All Porichthyinae are marine but there are three freshwater species of Thalassophryninae in South America. Genera 25 Species 78 (Ref. 86865).
  Etymology
:
Greek, batrachos = frog ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
guarders
  Typical activity level
:
sluggish
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Acanthopterygii | Percomorphaceae | Batrachoidaria | | | Batrachoidiformes | | | Batrachoididae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Batrachoididae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination
Batrachoidinae
Batrachoides surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus surinamensis Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymseniororiginal
Batrachoides tau Lacepède, 1800
ambiguousotheroriginal
Batrachoides pacifici (Günther, 1861)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus pacifici Günther, 1861
synonymseniororiginal
Batrachoides liberiensis (Steindachner, 1867)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus liberiensis Steindachner, 1867
synonymseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
Batrachoides pacifici (non Günther, 1861)
misappliedmisappliednew
Batrachoides goldmani Evermann & Goldsborough, 1902
acceptedseniororiginal
Batrachoides boulengeri Gilbert & Starks, 1904
acceptedseniororiginal
Batrachoides gilberti Meek & Hildebrand, 1928
acceptedseniororiginal
Batrachoides manglae Cervigón, 1964
acceptedseniororiginal
Batrachoides walkeri Collette & Russo, 1981
acceptedseniororiginal
Batrachoides waltersi Collette & Russo, 1981
acceptedseniororiginal
Opsanus tau (Linnaeus, 1766)
acceptedseniornew
Gadus tau Linnaeus, 1766
synonymseniororiginal
Opsanus cerapalus Rafinesque, 1818
synonymjuniororiginal
Opsanus beta (Goode & Bean, 1880)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus tau beta Goode & Bean, 1880
synonymseniororiginal
Opsanus vandeuseni Fowler, 1939
synonymjuniororiginal
Opsanus brasiliensis Rotundo, Spinelli & Zavala-Camin, 2005
synonymjuniororiginal
Opsanus pardus (Goode & Bean, 1880)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus tau pardus Goode & Bean, 1880
synonymseniororiginal
Opsanus phobetron Walters & Robins, 1961
acceptedseniororiginal
Opsanus dichrostomus Collette, 2001
acceptedseniororiginal
Opsanus tau (non Linnaeus, 1766)
misappliedmisappliednew
Opsanus beta (non Goode & Bean, 1880)
misappliedmisappliednew
Amphichthys rubigenis Swainson, 1839
acceptedseniororiginal
Batrachus rubigenis Swainson, 1839
ambiguousotheroriginal
! Amphichthys rubrigenes Swainson, 1839
synonymseniororiginal
Amphichthys cryptocentrus (Valenciennes, 1837)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus cryptocentrus Valenciennes, 1837
synonymseniororiginal
Marcgravia cryptocentra (Valenciennes, 1837)
synonymseniornew
Opsanus hildebrandi Breder, 1925
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymjuniornew
Sanopus barbatus (Meek & Hildebrand, 1928)
acceptedseniornew
Opsanus barbatus Meek & Hildebrand, 1928
synonymseniororiginal
Sanopus astrifer (Robins & Starck, 1965)
acceptedseniornew
Opsanus astrifer Robins & Starck, 1965
synonymseniororiginal
Sanopus johnsoni Collette & Starck, 1974
acceptedseniororiginal
Sanopus splendidus Collette, Starck & Phillips, 1974
acceptedseniororiginal
Sanopus greenfieldorum Collette, 1983
acceptedseniororiginal
Sanopus reticulatus Collette, 1983
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Vladichthys gloverensis (Greenfield & Greenfield, 1973)
acceptedseniornew
Triathalassothia gloverensis Greenfield & Greenfield, 1973
synonymseniororiginal
Amphichthys gloverensis (Greenfield & Greenfield, 1973)
synonymseniornew
Halophryninae
Halophryne diemensis (Lesueur, 1824)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
synonymseniororiginal
Halophryne ocellatus Hutchins, 1974
acceptedseniororiginal
Halophryne hutchinsi Greenfield, 1998
acceptedseniororiginal
! Halophryne hutchinsoni Greenfield, 1998
synonymseniororiginal
! Halophyrne hutchinsi Greenfield, 1998
synonymseniororiginal
Batrachomoeus trispinosus (Günther, 1861)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus trispinosus Günther, 1861
synonymseniororiginal
Halophryne trispinosus (Günther, 1861)
synonymseniornew
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
Batrachomoeus dubius (White, 1790)
acceptedseniornew
Lophius dubius White, 1790
synonymseniororiginal
synonymseniornew
Lophius nigricans Forster, 1794
synonymjuniororiginal
Pseudobatrachus striatus Castelnau, 1875
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
ambiguousotheroriginal
Batrachomoeus minor Ogilby, 1908
synonymjuniororiginal
Batrachomoeus dahli (Rendahl, 1922)
acceptedseniornew
Pseudobatrachus dahli Rendahl, 1922
synonymseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus didactylus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymseniororiginal
Batrachoides didactylus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
synonymseniornew
synonymjuniororiginal
Batrachus punctatus Agassiz, 1831
synonymjuniororiginal
! Batrachus punctulatus Agassiz, 1831
synonymjuniororiginal
Batrachus borealis Nilsson, 1832
synonymjuniororiginal
Batrachus planifrons Guichenot, 1850
synonymjuniororiginal
Batrachoides planifrons (Guichenot, 1850)
synonymjuniornew
Batrachus algeriensis Guichenot, 1850
synonymjuniororiginal
Batrachus guentheri Bleeker, 1863
synonymjuniororiginal
Gadus tau (non Linnaeus, 1766)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Batrichthys apiatus (Valenciennes, 1837)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus apiatus Valenciennes, 1837
synonymseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymjuniornew
synonymjuniornew
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
synonymseniornew
synonymjuniororiginal
Triathalassothia lambaloti Menezes & Figueiredo, 1998
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Austrobatrachus iselesele Greenfield, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal
Chatrabus melanurus (Barnard, 1927)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
Chatrabus damaranus (Barnard, 1927)
synonymjuniornew
Tharbacus vanecki Smith, 1952
synonymjuniororiginal
Chatrabus felinus (Smith, 1952)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Gymnobatrachus apiatus (non Valenciennes, 1837)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Chatrabus hendersoni (Smith, 1952)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Barchatus cirrhosus (Klunzinger, 1871)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus cirrhosus Klunzinger, 1871
synonymseniororiginal
Thalassothia cirrhosa (Klunzinger, 1871)
synonymseniornew
! Barchatus cirrhosa (Klunzinger, 1871)
synonymseniornew
! Thalassothia cirrhosus (Klunzinger, 1871)
synonymseniornew
Barchatus indicus Greenfield, 2014
acceptedseniororiginal
Riekertia ellisi Smith, 1952
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus elminensis Bleeker, 1863
synonymseniororiginal
Parabatrachus elminensis (Bleeker, 1863)
synonymseniornew
Batrachus congicus Reichenow, 1877
ambiguousquestionableoriginal
synonymjuniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
synonymseniornew
Perulibatrachus kilburni Greenfield, 1996
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Bifax lacinia Greenfield, Mee & Randall, 1994
acceptedseniororiginal
Allenbatrachus grunniens (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
Cottus grunniens Linnaeus, 1758
synonymseniororiginal
Batrachoides grunniens (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Batrachus grunniens (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Batrichthys grunniens (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Cottus indus Linnaeus, 1764
synonymjuniororiginal
Batrachoides gangene Hamilton, 1822
synonymjuniororiginal
Halophryne gangene (Hamilton, 1822)
synonymjuniornew
! Halophyrene gangene (Hamilton, 1822)
synonymjuniornew
Allenbatrachus reticulatus (Steindachner, 1870)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus reticulatus Steindachner, 1870
synonymseniororiginal
Allenbatrachus meridionalis Greenfield & Smith, 2004
acceptedseniororiginal
Colletteichthys dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1837)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus dussumieri Valenciennes, 1837
synonymseniororiginal
Austrobatrachus dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1837)
synonymseniornew
Colletteichthys flavipinnis Greenfield, Bineesh & Akhilesh, 2012
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Austrobatrachus dussumieri (non Valenciennes, 1837)
misappliedmisappliednew
Porichthyinae
Porichthys notatus Girard, 1854
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
! Porichthys porossissimus (Cuvier, 1829)
synonymseniornew
Porichthys margaritatus (Richardson, 1844)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus margaritatus Richardson, 1844
synonymseniororiginal
Porichthys nautopaedium Jordan & Bollman, 1890
synonymjuniororiginal
Porichthys plectrodon Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
acceptedseniororiginal
Porichthys greenei Gilbert & Starks, 1904
acceptedseniororiginal
Porichthys analis Hubbs & Schultz, 1939
acceptedseniororiginal
Porichthys myriaster Hubbs & Schultz, 1939
acceptedseniororiginal
Porichthys pauciradiatus Caldwell & Caldwell, 1963
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Porichthys kymosemeum Gilbert, 1968
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniororiginal
Porichthys ephippiatus Walker & Rosenblatt, 1988
acceptedseniororiginal
Porichthys mimeticus Walker & Rosenblatt, 1988
acceptedseniororiginal
Porichthys oculellus Walker & Rosenblatt, 1988
acceptedseniororiginal
Aphos porosus (Valenciennes, 1837)
acceptedseniornew
Batrachus porosus Valenciennes, 1837
synonymseniororiginal
Porichthys afuerae Evermann & Radcliffe, 1917
synonymjuniororiginal
Thalassophryninae
acceptedseniororiginal
Batrachus uranoscopus Guichenot, 1866
synonymjuniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
Thalassophryne amazonica Steindachner, 1876
acceptedseniororiginal
Thalassophryne nattereri Steindachner, 1876
acceptedseniororiginal
! Thalassophryne natteneri Steindachner, 1876
synonymseniororiginal
synonymjuniororiginal
Thalassophryne maculosa (non Günther, 1861)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Thalassophryne punctata Steindachner, 1876
acceptedseniororiginal
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
! Thalassophyrne platensis Devincenzi, 1924
synonymjuniororiginal
Thalassophryne platensis Devincenzi, 1924
synonymjuniororiginal
Thalassophryne maculosa (non Günther, 1861)
misappliedmisappliedoriginal
Thalassophryne megalops Bean & Weed, 1910
acceptedseniororiginal
Daector dowi (Jordan & Gilbert, 1887)
acceptedseniornew
Thalassophryne dowi Jordan & Gilbert, 1887
synonymseniororiginal
Thalassophryne depressa Hildebrand, 1946
synonymjuniororiginal
Daector reticulata (Günther, 1864)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Daector quadrizonatus (Eigenmann, 1922)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Daector gerringi (Rendahl, 1941)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal
Daector schmitti Collette, 1968
acceptedseniororiginal
! Daector schmittii Collette, 1968
synonymseniororiginal
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